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    Word Icon 35px Jpg.ashx STA630 6 Midterm Papers Solved With references

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    MIDTERM EXAMINATION
    Spring 2010
    STA630- Research Methods (Session - 2)
    Marks: 47
    Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    On which of the following, Scientific knowledge mostly relies?
    ► Identification of events
    ► Logical understanding
    ► Prior knowledge
    ► All of the given options
    Reference:
    Science is based on the assumption that all events have antecedent causes that are subject to
    identification and logical understanding.(page#4)
    Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    All of the following are true statements about action research EXCEPT;
    ►Data are systematically analyzed.
    ► Data are collected systematically.
    ► Results are generalizable.
    ►Results are used to improve practice.
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381508.cw/index.html
    Question#2
    Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following research questions is BEST answered using action research?
    ►How can I improve the interaction of students of different ethnicity in my class?
    ►What factors influence student interaction in multiethnic classes?
    ►Is there a difference between male and female acceptance of others in multiethnic
    classes?
    ►How do students from Asian countries adjust to classroom practices in U.S. schools?
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381508.cw/index.html
    Question#3
    Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is true about the relationship between theory building and data
    collection?
    ►When studies come out as expected, inductive support for the theory is gained.
    ►If an experiment fails, discarding the experiment is an example of affirming the
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    consequent.
    ►When a hypothesis is not supported, virtually nothing has been learned about the
    theory.
    ►A good theory will be inclusive enough to explain every possible research outcome.
    Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?
    ►Age Vuhelp
    ►Annual income
    ►Grade point average
    ►Religion
    Reference:
    http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc2.htm
    Question#20
    Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?
    ►Guides the direction of the study
    ►Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts
    ►Provides framework for organizing the conclusions
    ►Determine feasibility of conducting the study
    Reference:
    http://www.docstoc.com/docs/54921579/lecture-07ppt
    Slide 21
    Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following functions is performed by theoretical framework?
    ►Elaborates the relationship among the variables.
    ►Explains the logic underlying these relationships.
    ►Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
    ►All of the given options.
    Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ________ model of our study.
    ►Functional
    ►Conceptual
    ►Operational
    ►Practical
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    Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What is the first step in the research process?
    ►Problem definition
    ►Define broad problem area
    ►Theoretical framework
    ►Preliminary data collection
    Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the business researcher be aware of when signing a confidentiality
    agreement?
    ►Any clause which limits the length of a questionnaire.
    ►Any clause which allows the company to comment on findings that will be published.
    ►Any clause which increases the level of access for the researcher.
    ►Any clause which guarantees the anonymity of research participants.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch05/
    Question#5
    Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    All of the following are part of the ethics code for animal research, except;
    ► The researcher must be an expert about the species being studied.
    ► Procedures using reinforcement are preferred over those using punishment.
    ► Animal studies that are purely educational in purpose cannot be done.
    ► If the animal must be killed at the end of the study, a painless procedure must be
    used.
    Reference:
    under certain circumstances, animals can be used for purely educational purposes
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    Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is not an example of deception?
    ► A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent.
    ► To observe code of ethics.
    ► To leak out information regarding any confidential matter.
    ► To create bias between respondents before the survey.
    Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students' ability to
    conduct a chemistry experiment in the lab?
    ► Aptitude
    ► Interest inventory
    ► Performance assessment
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    ► Standardized test
    Reference:
    When an assessment measures a process or product, it is known as a performance
    assessment.
    Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    If a study is 'reliable', this means that:
    It was conducted by a reputable researcher who can be trusted.
    The measurements devised for concepts are stable on different occasions.
    The findings can be generalized to other social settings.
    The methods are stated clearly enough for the research to be replicated.
    Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    A measure has high internal consistency reliability when:
    ► Multiple observers make the same ratings using the measure.
    ► Participants score at the high end of the scale every time they complete the
    measure.
    ► Multiple observers obtain the same score every time they use the measure.
    ► Each of the items correlates with other items on the measure.
    Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Mr. Ali has described in great detail the major steps he will follow in conducting his
    study. This information is likely found in which section of his research plan?
    ► Introduction
    ► Participants
    ► Methodology
    ► Data Analysis
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1488/381020.cw/index.html
    Question#8
    Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT a necessary component of survey research?
    ► Triangulation of data
    ► Literature review
    ► Data analysis
    ► Validity
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1488/381020.cw/index.html
    Question#4
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    Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the researcher do if they have achieved a low response rate?
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    Copy responses and paste them again.
    Abandon the research project entirely.
    Recognize and accept the possible limitations of a low response rate.
    Fill in some more questionnaires themselves.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch09/
    Question#4
    Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is not an advantage of the self-completion questionnaire over the
    structured interview?
    It is cheaper to administer.
    It is quicker to administer.
    It is easier to prompt the interviewee.
    It is easier to remove interviewer effects.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch09/
    Question#1
    Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Cover letter must include all of the following information, except:
    ► How was the respondent selected?
    ► Importance of research topic which is going to be conducted
    ► Motivation for the respondent
    ► Data collecting tools
    Reference:
    The cover letter that accompanies the questionnaire or is printed on the first page of the
    questionnaire is an important means of inducing a reader to complete and return the
    questionnaire. In the letter tell why the study is important, who is sponsoring the study, how was
    the respondent selected, assuring the anonymity of the respondent could help in establishing
    rapport and motivating the respondent to respond.
    Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The most critical area of an article to read is; Vuhelp
    ► Introduction
    ► Abstract
    ► Results section
    ► Limitations
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    Reference:
    The most critical areas of an article to read are the methods and results sections
    Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Moving up the ladder of the abstraction, concepts become _________.
    ► Wider In Scope
    ► Specific
    ► Measurable
    ► None of the given options
    Reference:
    Moving up the ladder of abstraction, the basic concept becomes more abstract, wider in scope,
    and less amenable to measurement.
    Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Extrapolation in theory refers to:
    ► Making generalization on the basis of the present findings
    ► Limited scope of the research
    ► Accurately measuring the particular phenomenon at hand
    ► None of the given options
    Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Dividing a variable in concrete and observable indicators is called:
    ► Theory building
    ► Operationalization
    ► Propositions
    ► None of the given options
    Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Peer review refers to:
    ► Before publishing the review of the article by the contemporary experts
    ► A group of friends reviewing the article
    ► Reviewing one's article critically
    ► Critical literature review before publishing
    Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is an example of categorical variable?
    ► Age
    ► Grade point average
    ► Gender
    ► Motivation
    Reference:
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    Categorical Variable
    Any variable that is not quantitative is categorical. Categorical variables take a value that
    is one of several possible categories. As naturally measured, categorical variables have no
    numerical meaning. Examples: Hair color, gender, field of study, college attended,
    political affiliation, status of disease infection.
    Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is elaborative exploratory pilot study? Vuhelp
    ► Focus group discussion
    ► Literature review
    ► Document analysis
    ► Survey
    Reference:
    A pilot study implies that some aspect of the research is done on a small scale. For this purpose
    focus group discussions could be carried out. Page 7
    Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research
    studies?
    ► Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
    ► Hypotheses are never used.
    ► Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and
    analyzed.
    ► Hypotheses are deductively tested
    Reference:
    http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc3.htm
    Question#24
    Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is true about the ethics in research context?
    ► Ethics means to avoid plagiarism
    ► Ethics in the research is applied at all stages
    ► Goals of the research should be informed to the respondents
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The degree to which the measurement questions provide ample coverage of the
    investigative questions usually refers to:
    ► Face and Content Validity
    ► Content and Criterion Validity
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    ► Criterion and Predictive Validity
    ► None of the given options
    Reference:
    The content validity of a measuring instrument (the composite of measurement scales) is the
    extent to which it provides adequate coverage of the investigative questions guiding the study.
    Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Personal interviews that are conducted in the shopping plazas are example of:
    ► Mail interviews
    ► Mall intercept interviews
    ► Shopping interview
    ► None of the given options
    Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following are the sources concepts?
    ► Personal experiences
    ► Creativity
    ► Observation
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Why is the statement "What are the effects of extracurricular activities on children” not a
    good statement of a quantitative research question?
    ► Because the study would be too difficult to do given all the different
    extracurricular activities.
    ► Because the statement was not specific enough to provide an understanding of the
    actual variables being investigated.
    ► Because there are not enough school age children engaged in extracurricular
    activities to conduct the study.
    ► Because there is no connection between extracurricular activities and learning
    development.
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    Reference:
    http://www.scribd.com/doc/22683412/Lecture-Notes-Research-Chaper-1-9
    Page#9
    Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following terms represents the most general, broad concept?
    ► Apple
    ► Fruit
    ► Vegetation
    ► None of the given option
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    Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
    What do we mean by total design effort? And why it is necessary? Vuhelp
    Question No: 36 ( Marks: 5 )
    What is the difference between confidentiality and anonymity?
    Question No: 37 ( Marks: 5 )
    Why are the basic research design issues important to consider before conducting the
    study and even as early as at the time of formulating the research question?
    MIDTERM EXAMINATION
    Spring 2010
    STA630- Research Methods (Session - 3)
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    Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Who, among the following, is the writer of Business Research Methods?
    ► Neuman, W.C.
    ► Zikmund, W.
    ► Sekaran, U.
    ► Dessler, G.
    Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the folowing is the basis of the Scientific Method?
    ► To test hypothesis in conditions that is conducive to its success.
    ► To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
    ► To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled
    conditions that challenge the hypothesis.
    ► To test hypothesis and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.
    Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The action research method is depicting as a strengthening process because;
    ► Data collection continues throughout data analysis.
    ► The results are analyzed and used by other researchers to conduct additional
    investigations of the topic.
    ► The action researcher continues to study other topics of interest after the initial study
    is completed.
    ► The process continues even after the data are collected and analyzed, and actions are
    taken based on findings.
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    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381508.cw/index.html
    Question#14
    Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Quantitative researcher's pre-occupation with generalization is an attempt to:
    ► Develop the law like findings of the natural sciences.
    ► Boost their chances of publication.
    ► Enhance the internal validity of their research.
    ► Demonstrate the complex techniques of statistical analysis.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch06/
    Question#6
    Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    “Income distribution of employees” in a specific organization is an example of which
    type of variable?
    ► Discontinuous variable
    ► Dependent variable
    ► Continuous variable
    ► Independent variable
    Reference:
    If the values of a variable can be divided into fractions then we call it a continuous variable. Such
    a variable can take infinite number of values. Income, temperature, age, or a test score are
    examples of continuous variables.
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    Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Hypothesis test may also be called as:
    ► Informal test
    ► Moderating test
    ► Significance test
    ► t-test
    Reference:
    A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making decisions using data, whether from a
    controlled experiment or an observational study (not controlled). In statistics, a result is
    called statistically significant
    Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    A formal statement of the research question or “purpose of research study” generally:
    ► Is made prior to the literature review
    ► Is made after the literature review
    ► Will help guide the research process
    ► Is made before or after literature review
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    Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the business researcher be aware of when signing a confidentiality
    agreement?
    ► Any clause which limits the length of a questionnaire.
    ► Any clause which allows the company to comment on findings that will be
    published.
    ► Any clause which increases the level of access for the researcher.
    ► Any clause which guarantees the anonymity of research participants.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch05/
    Question#5
    Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Quantitative research has been criticised because:
    ► The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
    ► The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.
    ► It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
    ► It has no validity.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199202959/01student/cqs/ch06/
    Question#8
    Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students' ability to
    conduct a chemistry experiment in the lab?
    ► Aptitude
    ► Interest inventory
    ► Performance assessment
    ► Standardized test
    Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalization, which is a
    sign of:
    ► External validity
    ► Internal reliability
    ► External reliability
    ► Internal validity
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199202959/01student/cqs/ch06/
    Question#7
    Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
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    A study design in which the researcher might create_______ to establish cause-and-effect
    relationship is called Experimental Design.
    ► An artificial setting, control some variables and manipulates the independent
    variable
    ► A natural setting, control some variables and manipulates the dependent variables
    ► An artificial setting, control some variables and manipulates the dependent variable
    ► All of the given options
    Reference:
    Experimental Design_ A study design in which the researcher might create An artificial setting, control
    some variables and manipulates the independent variable to establish cause-and-effect relationship is
    called Experimental Design.
    Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following types of survey research is often used for program evaluation or
    accreditation purposes?
    ► Developmental surveys
    ► Followup studies
    ► Public opinion polls
    ► No survey research is appropriate
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381582.cw/index.html
    Question#7
    Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the researcher do if they have achieved a low response rate?
    ► Copy responses and paste them again.
    ► Abandon the research project entirely.
    ► Recognize and accept the possible limitations of a low response rate.
    ► Fill in some more questionnaires themselves.
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    Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following characteristic of the scientific method is defined as the
    confirmation or refutation of the observation through the scientific method by using
    sensory experience?
    ► Empirical
    ► Verifiable
    ► Observable
    ► Cumulative
    Reference:
    2. Verifiable
    Observations made through scientific method are to be verified again by using the senses to
    confirm or refute the previous findings.
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    Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following study requires the collection of data at one point in time from a
    large number of respondents?
    ► Case study
    ► Cross-sectional study
    ► All of the given options
    ► Longitudinal study
    Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Basic research can also be called as
    ► Practical research
    ► Fundamental Research
    ► Action research
    ► Assessment research
    Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Methodological reviews can be best explained as:
    ► Evaluation of the previous research methodologies used by the researchers
    ► Assessment of the models built by the previous researchers
    ► Reviewing the review in the systematic manner
    ► Studying the specific context under study
    Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The review that presents the current state of knowledge by combining different reports is
    called:
    ► Self study review
    ► Theoretical review
    ► Systematic review
    ► Integrative review
    Reference:
    Integrative review summarizes what is known at a point in time. It presents the current state of
    knowledge and pulls together disparate research reports in a fast growing area of knowledge
    Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The best method to narrow down a topic is to:
    ► Develop theoretical framework
    ► Review literature
    ► Test a hypothesis
    ► Conduct a survey
    Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is not the part of the funded research proposal?
    ► Research strategies
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    ► Significance of the research
    ► Research Team
    ► Theoretical framework
    Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Why should we study research for our degree requirement?
    ► Because we live in a society that is driven by research.
    ► To improve our critical thinking skills.
    ► To learn how to critically evaluate published research.
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is elaborative exploratory pilot study?
    ► Focus group discussion
    ► Literature review
    ► Document analysis
    ► Survey
    Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is true for field experiment?
    ► It is difficult to control the external factors to research
    ► It is possible to establish perfect cause and effect relationship
    ► Survey method is not appropriate
    ► It is similar to lab experiment
    Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is the BEST hypothesis?
    ► Students taking formative quizzes will perform better on exams at the end of the
    chapter than students not taking these quizzes.
    ► Taller students will have higher test scores than shorter students.
    ► Students taught in a cooperative group setting should do better than students in a
    traditional class.
    ► Students using laptops will do well.
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    Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    ‘There is no relationship between motivation level and efficiency’ is an example of which
    type of hypothesis?
    ► Alternative
    ► Correlational
    ► Null
    ► Research
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    Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of the operational definition?
    ► It divides a concept into the empirical measures
    ► It translates a broad phenomenon into specific concepts
    ► It delineate the antecedents of the concept being operationalized
    ► It provides the working definition of the concept
    Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following types of scales is likely measuring students' deeply held beliefs
    about ideas, people, or objects?
    ► The Study of Values
    ► The Attitudes toward School Scale
    ► The Strong Campbell Interest Inventory
    ► The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1489/381224.cw/index.html
    Question#3
    Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following statements is correct about validity and reliability?
    ► When internal validity is high, external validity is low
    ► When internal validity is high, there is no change in external validity
    ► When internal validity is high, external validity is also high
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Large number of respondents are best interviewed in a (an)__________ way
    ► Unstructured
    ► Structured
    Semi structured
    ► Open ended
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    Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Different factors affect the outcome of survey. In a study using a self completion
    questionnaire, which of the following would probably NOT affect the outcome?
    Interviewer training
    ► Sample size
    ► Incentive quality
    ► Question wording
    Reference:
    http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/ema_uk_he_saunders_resmethbus_5/111/28552/7309423.cw/i
    ndex.html
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    Question#14
    Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The response rate of the internet survey can be increased due to:
    ► Personality of the researcher
    ► Maximum number of the questions
    ► Sponsoring agency
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following hypothesis is a descriptive one?
    ► What is the level of commitment of the officers in your organization?
    ► What is the effect of organizational commitment on officer’s productivity?
    ► What are the factors that affect commitment of the officers?
    ► All of the given options.
    Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following does not represent the characteristic of a good quantitative
    problem statement?
    ► Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find.
    ► Defines the independent and dependent variables.
    ► Conveys a sense of emerging design.
    ► Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested.
    Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
    What is the primary difference between test/retest and internal consistency?
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    Question No: 36 ( Marks: 5 )
    Researchers interviewed a group of people in a specific room. They were told that only
    their interaction with each other and their point of views on a specific issue are being
    studied but in fact high frequency sound waves were passed through that room and their
    effect on human behavior was being observed.
    Answer the following questions:
    Is it an act of deception? Give reason for your choice.
    Do you think it was necessary to deceive the respondent in this experiment?
    What can the researcher do after the completion of research to rectify the damage done to
    the respondents?
    Question No: 37 ( Marks: 5 )
    What is personal interviewing, how it can be conducted and at which places?
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    MIDTERM EXAMINATION
    Spring 2010
    STA630- Research Methods (Session - 4)
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    Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Research can help in the following ways for developing methodologies, EXCEPT;
    ► Tools of data collection
    ► New technique for gathering data
    ► Defining a problem
    ► Data analysis
    Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the folowing is the basis of the Scientific Method?
    ► To test hypothesis in conditions that is conducive to its success.
    ► To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
    ► To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions
    that challenge the hypothesis.
    ► To test hypothesis and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.
    Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, Except.
    ► Health care
    ► Business
    ► Government offices
    ► Religion
    Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following BEST describes quantitative research?
    ► The collection of non numerical data
    ► An attempt to confirm the research’s hypotheses
    ► Research that is exploratory
    ► Research that attempts to generate a new theory
    Reference:
    http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc2.htm
    Question#3
    Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is the definition of an independent variable?
    A variable that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter.
    ► A response variable.
    ► The behavioural measure made by the experimenter.
    ► A dependent variable that is controlled by the experimenter.
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    Reference:
    http://www.uk.sagepub.com/breakwell/downloads/mcq/mcq_04/mcq_04.htm
    Question#4
    Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Why do you need to review the existing literature?
    To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references.
    Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count.
    To find out what is already known about your area of interest.
    To help in your general study.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch04/
    Question#1
    Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    A literature review should be characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT;
    ► Summarize and report each article.
    ► Use important topics as the organizing structure of the review.
    ► Analyze all articles for similarities and differences related to major topics.
    ► Discuss implications relative to the research problem.
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_8/38/9866/2525732.cw/index.html
    Question#2
    Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following functions is performed by theoretical framework?
    ► Elaborates the relationship among the variables.
    ► Explains the logic underlying these relationships.
    ► Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
    ► All of the given options.
    Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    When there is a need of generating new ideas for hypotheses or to interpret the results of
    some research, which one is the best research deign?
    ► Experiment
    ► Surveys
    Focus group discussion
    ► Communication analysis
    Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the business researcher be aware of when signing a confidentiality
    agreement?
    Any clause which limits the length of a questionnaire.
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    Any clause which allows the company to comment on findings that will be published.
    Any clause which increases the level of access for the researcher.
    Any clause which guarantees the anonymity of research participants.
    Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is an example of deception in business research?
    The obtaining of company material without permission.
    The researcher wearing a disguise during an observation.
    The researcher representing their research as being about a different topic.
    The researcher failing to ask permission to interview someone.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch05/
    Question#9
    Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    All of the following are part of the ethics code for animal research, except;
    ► The researcher must be an expert about the species being studied.
    ► Procedures using reinforcement are preferred over those using punishment.
    ► Animal studies that are purely educational in purpose cannot be done.
    ► If the animal must be killed at the end of the study, a painless procedure must be used.
    Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is not an example of deception?
    ► A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent.
    ► To observe code of ethics.
    ► To leak out information regarding any confidential matter.
    ► To create bias between respondents before the survey.
    Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students' ability to
    conduct a chemistry experiment in the lab?
    ► Aptitude
    ► Interest inventory
    ► Performance assessment
    ► Standardized test
    Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT a legitimate purpose of a research plan?
    ► It forces you to think through every aspect of a study.
    ► It provides detailed procedures to guide the conduct of the study.
    ► It provides clear roadmap of the study.
    ► Writing a plan facilitates the evaluation of it.
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    Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following surveys are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews?
    Mail
    Recorded Interview
    Focus group
    ► Telephonic
    Reference:
    Telephone interviews are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews
    Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    All of the following are the characteristics of scientific methods of research, EXCEPT;
    ► Cumulative
    ► Deterministic
    ► Unethical
    ► Rationalism
    Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT the feature of theoretical framework?
    ► Make an inventory of variables
    ► Statistical analysis
    ► Specify the direction of relationship
    ► Make an inventory of propositions
    Reference:
    http://www.docstoc.com/docs/54921597/lecture-10ppt
    slide 7 to 13
    http://groups.google.com/group/vu-askari?hl=en
    http://groups.google.com/group/vu-askari?hl=en
    Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following study requires the collection of data at one point in time from a
    large number of respondents?
    ► Case study
    ► Cross-sectional study
    ► All of the given options
    ► Longitudinal study
    Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT the goal of the explanatory research?
    ► Testing theory
    ► Establishing the relationship between different phenomenon
    ► Generating new ideas about the topic
    ► Replicating a theory to a new area
    Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
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    Basic research can also be called as
    ► Practical research
    ► Fundamental Research
    ► Action research
    ► Assessment research
    Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Descriptive hypothesis is also called:
    ► Directional Hypothesis
    ► Univariate Hypothesis
    ► Non directional Hypothesis
    ► All of the given options
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    Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Logical argument of the researcher can be based on:
    ► Personal experience
    ► Literature review
    ► Arm chair thinking
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Rationalism is the application of which of the following?
    ► Research solution
    ► Logic and arguments
    ► Intuition
    ► Previous findings
    Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research
    studies?
    ► Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
    ► Hypotheses are never used.
    ► Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed.
    ► Hypotheses are deductively tested
    Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    _______________are more specific that dimensions:
    ► Elements
    ► Variables
    ► Aspects of variables
    ► Concepts
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    Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
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    Which of the following is an indicator of the job stress?
    ► Competitive pay
    ► Role conflict
    ► Fair policies
    ► None of the given options
    Reference:
    The measures included five indices of stress (role conflict, role ambiguity, overload,
    future uncertainty, and responsibility)
    Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following functions is performed by the Ratio scale?
    ► All of the given options
    ► Distance
    ► Order
    ► Unique origin
    Reference:
    Measures of physical dimensions such as weight, height, distance, and area are the examples.
    Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following effect in internal validity occurs when test units with extreme
    scores are used.
    ► Statistical regression
    ► Selection Bias
    ► Maturation
    ► Instrumentation
    Reference:
    Statistical Regression Statistical regression (SR) effects occur when test units with
    extreme scores move closer.
    Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The design where we have no control over the variables and report only what has
    happened or what is happening is called___________
    ► Research design
    ► Contrived design
    ► Ex-post-facto design
    ► Explanatory design
    Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following disadvantage of personal interview can be overcome by rapport
    building?
    ► Cost
    ► Lack of anonymity of the respondents
    ► Scarcity of highly trained interviewers
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    ► Callbacks
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    Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Large number of respondents are best interviewed in a (an)__________ way
    ► Unstructured
    ► Structured
    ► Semi structured
    ► Open ended
    Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which one of these is an interviewer-administered questionnaire?
    ► Postal questionnaire
    ► Delivery and collection questionnaire
    ► Telephone questionnaire
    On-line questionnaire
    Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    One of the disadvantages of the internet survey is:
    ► All people cannot participate
    ► Slow data collection speed
    ► Less anonymity
    ► High cost
    Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
    Why preliminary notification is essential in self administered questionnaire?
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    Question No: 36 ( Marks: 5 )
    A research was conducted by education department to see the impact of strict teaching
    practices on the rate of failure among the students.
    Identify dependent and independent variables. (1)
    Classify this research according to purpose of doing research; exploratory, descriptive or
    explanatory. Explain your choice.(2)
    Classify this research according to use of research; Basic or Applied. Explain your
    choice.(2)
    Question No: 37 ( Marks: 5 )
    "Because literature survey is a time-consuming exercise, a good in-depth interview will
    be sufficient to develop a theoretical framework". Discuss this statement.
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    MIDTERM EXAMINATION
    Fall 2009
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    STA630- Research Methods
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    Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Who, among the following, wrote the book "Research Methods for Business"?
    ► Zikmund, W.
    ► Sekaran, U.
    ► Dessler, G.
    ► Neuman, W.C.
    Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What does an empiricist believe?
    ► All the knowledge that we have of life after death can be used in research.
    ► Knowledge in the form of ‘facts’ should be gained through sensory experience.
    ► Research conducted within the British Empire was biased and unreliable.
    ► Research should not always necessarily rely on the scientific methods.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199202959/01student/cqs/ch01/
    Question#2
    Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Action research usually takes place in a single school because;
    ► It is designed to answer questions about improving practice in a particular
    setting.
    ► It is difficult to secure permission to study students in multiple schools.
    ► Teachers do not have the necessary skills to conduct research across multiple settings.
    ► Data collection methods used in action research are designed for single settings.
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381508.cw/index.html
    Question#4
    Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is characteristic of action research?
    ► Variables are tightly controlled.
    ► Results are generalizable.
    ► Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships.
    ► Data are usually qualitative.
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381508.cw/index.html
    Question#5
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    Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following statements is TRUE for qualitative research question?
    ► It asks a question about some process, or phenomenon to be explored.
    ► It is generally an open-ended question.
    ► It asks a question which may be open ended.
    ► It asks a closed ended question.
    Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT an example of quantitative variable?
    ► Age
    ► Grade point average
    ► Gender
    ► Motivation
    Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    In research, something that does not “vary” is known as:
    ► Variable
    ► Method
    ► Constant
    ► Control group
    Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The cause variable or the one that identifies forces or conditions that act on something
    else is known as:
    ► Moderating variable
    ► Independent variable
    ► Categorical variable
    ► Dependent variable
    Reference:
    http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=8eftmoqgM10C&pg=PA161&lpg=PA161&dq=%
    22cause+variable+or+the+one+that+identifies+forces +or+conditions+that+act+on+somet
    hing%22&source=bl&ots=B5sNg-
    IUch&sig=EEuUP23DRDExAJo2Wm32cPCy1Sc&hl=en&ei=Hxz8 TIzXFYLlrAfIvK29
    CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBQ Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&
    q=%22cause%20variable%20or%20the%20one%20that%20id entifies%20forces%20or%
    20conditions%20that%20act%20on%20something%22&f=fa lse
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    Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following statements best defines hypothesis?
    ► A quantitative study.
    ► A tentative prediction of the results of the research.
    ► A qualitative research design.
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    ► The operational definition of the study.
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_8/38/9866/2525737.cw/index.html
    Question#1
    Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research
    studies?
    ► Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
    ► Hypotheses are never used.
    ► Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed.
    ► Hypotheses are always stated after the research study has been completed.
    Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Hypothesis test may also be called as:
    ► Informal test
    ► Moderating test
    ► Significance test
    ► t-test
    Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following refers to "A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an
    area is rarely published but it often is part of an educational program is which type of
    review"?
    ► Integrative review
    ► Theoretical review
    ► Self-study review
    ► Historical review
    Reference:
    Self-study reviews increase the reader’s confidence. A review that only
    demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely published but it often is part of an
    educational program. In addition to giving others confidence in a reviewer’s
    command of field, it has the side benefit of building the reviewer’s self confidence.
    Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?
    ► Elaborate the relationship among the variables
    ► Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
    ► Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
    ► Relates the previous studies.
    Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following strategies is NOT useful when defining a particular research
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    question?
    ► To clearly articulate the research question, to provide operational, definitions and
    ensuring its testability.
    ► To clearly articulate the research question, outlining the conditions in which the
    phenomena of interest are to be investigated.
    ► To provide operational definitions of the ideas or concepts involved in the research.
    Ensuring that their research question is empirically testable.
    Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the business researcher be aware of when signing a confidentiality
    agreement?
    Any clause which limits the length of a questionnaire.
    Any clause which allows the company to comment on findings that will be published.
    Any clause which increases the level of access for the researcher.
    Any clause which guarantees the anonymity of research participants.
    Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    In a study of concept learning in first-graders, all of the following should happen, except;
    ► To help make the experience enjoyable, children should be given substantial
    incentives to participate.
    ► The children should be asked if they want to participate.
    ► Teachers of the children in their classes should give informed consent.
    ► Parents must give consent.
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    Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is least likely to occur as an ethical problem with electronic
    research?
    ► Privacy could be invaded.
    ► People are not likely to be able to stop once they have begun participating.
    ► Debriefing could be avoided.
    ► Informed consent cannot be completely monitored.
    Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Quantitative research has been criticised because:
    The reliance on instruments and procedures makes it high in ecological validity.
    The measurement process suggests a spurious and artificial sense of accuracy.
    It underestimates the similarities between objects in the natural and social worlds.
    It has no validity.
    Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is a characteristic of a standardized test?
    ► The administration of the test is controlled carefully to ensure that all examinees
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    experience the same conditions.
    ► The test is developed by experts to ensure it is technically sound.
    ► The scores are interpreted in standard ways.
    ► All of the given options
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_8/0,11083,2525945-
    content,00.utf8.html
    Question#6
    Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Mr. Latif is measuring students' attitudes on a controversial topic. Which of the following
    would you recommend he use to control for the potential problem of students feeling the
    need to respond with socially acceptable responses?
    ► Ensure construct validity
    ► Allow anonymous responses
    ► Ensure reliability
    ► Ensure confidentiality
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_8/0,11083,2525945-
    content,00.utf8.html
    Question#14
    Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following scales can measure the Temperature?
    ► Nominal scale
    ► Ordinal scale
    ► Interval scale
    ► All of the given options
    Reference:
    EVERYDAY EXAMPLES OF INTERVAL SCALES The measurement of temperature
    is a good example of an interval scale
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    Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Following are the properties of nominal scale, except;
    ► Least powerful
    ► Suggest no order
    ► Provide categorical information
    ► Provide magnitude of object
    Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT the implication of Ordinal scale?
    ► Characteristics of nominal scale
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    ► Rank the object
    ► Does not provide magnitude of object
    ► Provide rate
    Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following statements is correct about validity and reliability?
    ► When internal validity is high, external validity is low
    ► When internal validity is high, there is no change in external validity
    ► When internal validity is high, external validity is also high
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    When you are confident that the experimental manipulation produced the changes you
    measured in the dependent variable, your study probably has good ________ validity.
    ► Internal (Doubted)
    ► External
    ► Causal
    ► Construct
    Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Mr. Ali has conducted an extensive review of the literature and has deductively reasoned
    a hypothesis about his problem on the basis of this review. Which type of a research plan
    is Mr. Ali likely proposing?
    Qualitative
    ► Ethical
    ► Both quantitative and qualitative
    ► Quantitative
    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1488/381020.cw/index.html
    Question#17
    Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT a legitimate purpose of a research plan?
    ► It forces you to think through every aspect of a study.
    ► It provides detailed procedures to guide the conduct of the study.
    ► It provides clear roadmap of the study.
    ► Writing a plan facilitates the evaluation of it.
    Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    In the statement ‘Smoke badly destroys health of people’ what is the unit of analysis?
    ► Transportation
    ► Individuals
    ► Pollutants
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    ► Drugs
    Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    While studying supervisor-subordinate relationship in an organization, what is the unit of
    analysis?
    ► Individual
    ► Dyad
    ► Employer-employee
    ► Organization
    Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following types of survey research is often used for program evaluation or
    accreditation purposes?
    ► Developmental surveys
    ► Followup studies
    ► Public opinion polls
    ► No survey research is appropriate
    Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is NOT an example of a problem with using survey research to
    investigate behaviour?
    Respondents tend to answer by giving the most socially desirable answer.
    Respondents may inadvertently omit key terms in the question.
    Respondents may not give an honest reply to what they see as a threatening question.
    Respondents may be unwilling to reveal information as they believe they are likely to
    be identified.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch11/
    Question#1
    http://groups.google.com/group/vu-askari?hl=en
    Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    What should the researcher do if they have achieved a low response rate?
    Copy responses and paste them again.
    Abandon the research project entirely.
    Recognize and accept the possible limitations of a low response rate.
    Fill in some more questionnaires themselves.
    Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following statements is correct about questionnaire?
    A questionnaire should run to at least twenty pages.
    The questions should have no spaces between them so that the whole questionnaire
    looks small.
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    Only questionnaires that are A3 size achieve high response rates.
    Clear presentation is more important than overall size.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch09/
    Question#5
    Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Critical decision area in questionnaire construction is which of the following?
    ► Question content
    ► Question wording
    ► Response strategy
    ► All of the given options
    Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    The most critical area of an article to read is;
    ► Introduction
    ► Abstract
    ► Results section
    ► Limitations
    http://groups.google.com/group/vu-askari?hl=en
    Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following is/are advantage(s) of the self-completed questionnaire?
    Inability to confirm who completed the questionnaire
    Its unsuitability for some kinds of respondents
    Inability to ask many questions that are not directly relevant to the respondent
    ► Easy to justify the answer
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch09/
    option 1 2 3 are disadvantages
    Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Time consumed in mall intercept interview is representing which of the following type?
    ► High
    ► Moderate
    ► Low
    ► Nill
    Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following similarity is found in Qualitative research and Survey research?
    ► Examine topics primarily from the participants' perspectives.
    ► They are guided by predetermined variables to study.
    ► They are descriptive research methods.
    ► Have large sample sizes.
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    Reference:
    http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_airasian_edresearch_7/5/1490/381619.cw/index.html
    Question#3
    Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following represent a good qualitative problem statement?
    ► Defines the independent and dependent variables.
    ► conveys a sense of emerging design.
    ► Specifies a research hypothesis to be tested.
    ► Specifies the relationship between variables that the researcher expects to find.
    Reference:
    http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/mcq/mc3.htm
    Question#1
    Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following makes research questions very crucial?
    Guide your decisions about what data to collect and from where.
    Help you decide which research area interests you.
    Ensure that your findings have external validity.
    Prevent you from thinking about research strategies.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199284986/01student/cqs/ch02/
    Question#3
    Question No: 41 ( Marks: 10 )
    How would you explain "Research Proposal" and its different sections?
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    MIDTERM EXAMINATION
    Fall 2009
    STA630- Research Methods (Session - 4)
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    http://groups.google.com/group/vu-askari?hl=en
    Time: 60 min
    Marks: 50
    Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Under which of the following, research method is not applicable?
    ► Business
    ► Government offices
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    ► Imaginary worlds
    ► Health care
    Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    An inductive logic is one that:
    ►Involves testing as explicitly defined hypothesis.
    Does not allow for findings to feed back into the body of knowledge.
    ►Uses quantitative methods whenever possible.
    Allows theory to emerge out of the data.
    Reference:
    http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199202959/01student/cqs/ch01/
    Question#3
    Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Action research usually takes place in a single school because;
    ►It is designed to answer questions about improving practice in a particular
    setting.
    ►It is difficult to secure permission to study students in multiple schools.
    ►Teachers do not have the necessary skills to conduct research across multiple
    settings.
    ►Data collection methods used in action research are designed for single settings.
    Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following terms is NOT characteristic of action research?
    ►Collaboration
    ►Control
    ►Change
    Commitment
    Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following statements is TRUE for qualitative research question?
    ►It asks a question about some process, or phenomenon to be explored.
    ►It is generally an open-ended question.
    ►It asks a question which may be open ended.
    ►It asks a closed ended question.
    Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    All of the following are true about theories, except:
    ►They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
    They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
    ►They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
    ►They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.
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    Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
    Which of the following refers to"A condition or characteristic that can take on different
    values or categories"?
    ►A constant
    ►A variable
    ►A cause and effect relationship
    A descriptive relationship





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